Negative perceptions of “red tape” aside, public services such as schooling, health care, policing or public transport are considered a crucial state function making public bureaucratic action the locus of government power. While military organisations have existed as long as government itself, the idea of a standing police force is a relatively modern concept. For example, Medieval England’s system of travelling criminal courts, or assizes, used show trials and public executions to instill communities with fear to maintain control.
- In developing the common law, academic writings have always played an important part, both to collect overarching principles from dispersed case law, and to argue for change.
- Immanuel Kant believed a moral imperative requires laws “be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature”.
- Rational individuals trade through bilateral contracts on open markets until the costs of transactions mean that using corporations to produce things is more cost-effective.